Gall (Gall Stereographic)

The Gall stereographic projection, presented by James Gall in 1855, is a cylindrical projection. It is neither equal-area nor conformal but instead tries to balance the distortion inherent in any projection.

Classification

Transverse and oblique cylindrical

Available forms

Forward and inverse, Spherical

Defined area

Global

Alias

gall

Domain

2D

Input type

Geodetic coordinates

Output type

Projected coordinates

Gall (Gall Stereographic)

proj-string: +proj=gall

Usage

The need for a world map which avoids some of the scale exaggeration of the Mercator projection has led to some commonly used cylindrical modifications, as well as to other modifications which are not cylindrical. The earliest common cylindrical example was developed by James Gall of Edinburgh about 1855 (Gall, 1885, p. 119-123). His meridians are equally spaced, but the parallels are spaced at increasing intervals away from the Equator. The parallels of latitude are actually projected onto a cylinder wrapped about the sphere, but cutting it at lats. 45° N. and S., the point of perspective being a point on the Equator opposite the meridian being projected. It is used in several British atlases, but seldom in the United States. The Gall projection is neither conformal nor equal-area, but has a blend of various features. Unlike the Mercator, the Gall shows the poles as lines running across the top and bottom of the map.

Example using Gall Stereographical

$ echo 9 51 | proj +proj=gall +lon_0=0 +x_0=0 +y_0=0 +ellps=WGS84 +units=m
708432.90   5193386.36

Example using Gall Stereographical (Central meridian 90°W)

$ echo 9 51 | proj +proj=gall +lon_0=90w +x_0=0 +y_0=0 +ellps=WGS84 +units=m
7792761.91  5193386.36

Parameters

Note

All parameters for the projection are optional.

+lon_0=<value>

Longitude of projection center.

Defaults to 0.0.

+R=<value>

Radius of the sphere given in meters. If used in conjunction with +ellps +R takes precedence.

+x_0=<value>

False easting.

Defaults to 0.0.

+y_0=<value>

False northing.

Defaults to 0.0.

+ellps=<value>

See proj -le for a list of available ellipsoids.

Defaults to “GRS80”.

Mathematical definition

The formulas describing the Gall Stereographical are all taken from [Snyder1993].

Spherical form

Forward projection

\[x = \frac{\lambda}{\sqrt{2}}\]
\[y = (1+\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}) \tan(\phi/2)\]

Inverse projection

\[\phi = 2 \arctan( \frac{y}{1+\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}} )\]
\[\lambda = \sqrt{2} x\]