Central Conic

This is central (centrographic) projection on cone tangent at lat_0 latitude, identical with conic() projection from mapproj R package.



Available forms

Forward and inverse, spherical projection

Defined area

Global, but best used near the standard parallel

Implemented by

Lukasz Komsta



Latitude of standard parallel.

Central Conic


This simple projection is rarely used, as it is not equidistant, equal-area, nor conformal.

An example of usage (and the main reason to implement this projection in proj4) is the ATPOL geobotanical grid of Poland, developed in Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland in 1970s [Zajac1978]. The grid was originally handwritten on paper maps and further copied by hand. The projection (together with strange Earth radius) was chosen by its creators as the compromise fit to existing maps during first software development in DOS era. Many years later it is still de facto standard grid in Polish geobotanical research.

The ATPOL coordinates can be achieved with with the following parameters:

+proj=ccon +lat_1=52 +lat_0=52 +lon_0=19 +axis=esu +a=6390000 +x_0=330000 +y_0=-350000

For more information see [Komsta2016] and [Verey2017].

Forward projection

\[r = \cot \phi_0 - \tan (\phi - \phi_0)\]
\[x = r \sin (\lambda\sin\phi_0)\]
\[y = \cot \phi_0 - r \cos (\lambda\sin\phi_0)\]

Inverse projection

\[y = \cot \phi_0 - y\]
\[\phi = \phi_0 - \tan^{-1} ( \sqrt{x^2+y^2} - \cot \phi_0 )\]
\[\lambda = \frac{\tan^{-1} \sqrt{x^2+y^2}}{\sin \phi_0}\]

Reference values

For ATPOL to WGS84 test, run the following script:

cat << EOF | src/cs2cs -v -f "%E" +proj=ccon +lat_1=52 +lat_0=52 +lon_0=19 +axis=esu +a=6390000 +x_0=330000 +y_0=-350000 +to +proj=longlat +datum=WGS84 +no_defs
0 0
0 700000
700000 0
700000 700000
330000 350000

It should result with

1.384023E+01 5.503040E+01 0.000000E+00
1.451445E+01 4.877385E+01 0.000000E+00
2.478271E+01 5.500352E+01 0.000000E+00
2.402761E+01 4.875048E+01 0.000000E+00
1.900000E+01 5.200000E+01 0.000000E+00

Analogous script can be run for reverse test:

cat << EOF  | src/cs2cs -v -f "%E" +proj=longlat +datum=WGS84 +no_defs +to +proj=ccon +lat_1=52 +lat_0=52 +lon_0=19 +axis=esu +a=6390000 +x_0=330000 +y_0=-350000
24 55
15 49
24 49
19 52

and it should give the following results:

6.500315E+05 4.106162E+03 0.000000E+00
3.707419E+04 6.768262E+05 0.000000E+00
6.960534E+05 6.722946E+05 0.000000E+00
3.300000E+05 3.500000E+05 0.000000E+00